Magento uses Model-View-Controller (MVC) architecture as its software architectural pattern. This framework organizes the system’s process structure at the coding level and provides the means for the system to be scalable and extensible.
In today’s article, we will learn about Magento MVC architecture and how it enhances the system operation.
What is Magento MVC architecture?
MVC is the Model-View-Controller framework that separates an application into 3 components – Model, View, and Controller. Its main purpose is to segregate data access, user interface, and business logic.
- Model: This is the system modeling layer. Its main purpose is to handle system business rules and data persistence. The Model will communicate with the database to get the information.
- View: This is responsible for the user information display layer, such as the product page. The View is controlled by layout files that assemble blocks, containers, and UI components into a page for display by a web browser. They’re generally used in conjunction with PHTML template files to create HTML fragments assembled into the page.
- Controller: This is the layer that defines the main actions, requests, and responses of clients that may change the status of the Model and generate the model layer’s data view. Page flows and form submission orchestration are regulated by Controllers. Magento follows the standard MVC pattern, which allows for a strong separation of concerns and improved modularity.
Generally, there are 2 types of Magento MVC architecture: convention-based and configuration-based. In the convention-based MVC, you need to follow the instructions of the core system to set up your module. While in the configuration-based MVC, which is the one Magento uses, you will need to specify everything to your module’s configuration file to get started.
Key benefits of Magento MVC architecture
In Magento, files are grouped based on functionality called modules. Whenever you want to tap into the power of the Magento system, you’ll need to make some changes or additions to your config file. By being modular, Magento is perfect for business growth. Along with various extensions, having a Magento MVC architecture will make your website highly scalable.
Other amazing benefits are as follows:
- Allow testing MVC Model component separately from the user
- Enable performing development of multiple components parallelly
- Avoid complexity by dividing an application into 3 units
- Easier support for new types of customers
Magento-based MVC flow
- URL is taken by a PHP file and the Magento application is instantiated
- Application instantiates Front Controller Object
- Front Controller instantiates Routers
- Routers check URL and determine Controller and Actions
- Action Methods manipulate Models
- Action loads layout and kicks off rendering
- Templates, via Blocks, read from Models
- Blocks and Child Blocks render into the HTML page
Unlike other MVC patterns, Magento Blocks refer to the Models for their data as Action Controller doesn’t pass the data structure.
To sum up
It’s important to have a great understanding of these concepts so that you can develop your site effectively, especially when dealing with a more technical matter like coding. We hope that this article has been helpful for you when managing your Magento store.